Bangkok / Thailand



The Dominant Appearance

Noisy, smelly, dirty, crowded, commerce, smog, messy, hot, slums, traffic infarct, concrete and asphalt desert, humid, business at every corner, stinking klongs... Welcome to Bangkok!

Bangkok's Traffic
Bangkok Downtown Traffic, Phetburi Road by Asienreisender

Downtown Bangkok on Phetburi road. It's daytime and traffic is at ease. At rush-hour the wide roads all over Bangkok are blocked and there is merely stop-and-go. Smog is immense then. Image by Asienreisender, 12/2013

Thailand's center of commerce, a huge area crowded with business, business, business and more business, not a square centimeter is spared and free of business. Here, in the center, it becomes most clearly that business kills anything else. This place is not built for living beings, not for humans nor can live many animals in the concrete and asphalt jungle anymore. Except bacterias, viruses, cockroaches, rats, some house cats, dogs (among them estimated hundreds of thousands of strayers), in the parks here and there a squirrel and a few kinds of birds who are masters of survival and manage to live from rubbish, the city is free of animals.

'Graffiti in Bangkok' by Asienreisender

Graffitis in Bangkok, around Khao San Road. Images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2015, 2016

People's life is though, too. All the pollution and the stress, much traffic even in the smallest lanes - one never can be save not to be hit by a vehicle of any kind outside. They go anywhere. Even in notorious Khao San Road, where all the backpackers stay around and which is a road crammed with shops over shops over shops and shoppers over shoppers over shoppers, cars and 'tuk-tuk's' (motorcycle rikshas) pass through the crowd all the time.

'Bangkok's City Hall' by Asienreisender

Bangkok's City Hall, with several huge posters of the queen, because of her birthday in August. Image by Asienreisender, 8/2015

The shops sell tons over tons of cheap, ridiculous crap, mostly clothes and jewellery, but it's a challenge to find something useful, practical - let's say just a pair of simple trousers or a shirt without advertisments on it or any pictures or a shrill design. Difficult to find, nowadays. Fashion designer is a really poor profession. There are travel agencies, tatoo shops, massage parlours, food stalls and bigger restaurants, etc. All this crowd everywhere, all this traffic, no or much to small sidewalks for pedestrians, crammed with more shops and foodstalls all the way, the permanent din, the heat, the air pollution, that's exhausting and depressing. All the people have only in mind either to buy/consume or to sell anything. It's like in an ant heap. An everyday crawling for making money and spending money. Bangkok is an urban nightmare of a huge scale.

Over the Roofs of Bangkok
'Bangkok's Skyline' by Asienreisender

Bangkok's skyline. It's one of the biggest cities in the world. Humid, noisy, non-stop smog in the air, concrete as far one can see. Every seventh inhabitant is suffering asthmas, bronchitis or exhaustment. Many people, particularly motorbike and tuk-tuk drivers, wear respirator masks. Particularly the erection of the skyscrapers from the 1980s on worsened the situation by blocking air circulation in the street canyons.

Also the water supplies and the sewage system are not the best. A lot of Bangkok's waste water ends up in the many canals (klongs) and finally in the Chao Praya River. There is not much filtering, and therefore particularly the smaller canals with a slow stream speed contain a pretty ugly broth. And they smell...

Nowbody knows how many people are really living in Bangkok nowadays, but in the inner part it's estimated far above eight millions people, in the metropolitan region (much) more than fourteen millions, maybe sixteen millions or more. Many Thai People live partially in Bangkok and partially in the countryside, where they are born.

Image by Asienreisender, 5/2012


A History of Bangkok

Bangkok has a long history as a seaport at the mouth of the Chao Praya River at the coast of the Gulf of Thailand. Centuries ago Thonburi, now a part of Bangkok, was close to the seaside; nowadays, due to silt sedimentation, the open sea is 30km further south.

A Royal Thai Barge
Royal Barge on the Chao Phraya River in Bangkok by Asienreisender

A royal barge on the Chao Phraya River. In the background Wat Arun, the temple of dawn. Painting seen in Wan Pah, the Thai Boats Restaurant. Image by Asienreisender, 12/2013

The name Bangkok is the oldest name for the settlement on the eastern bank of the Chao Praya River, opposite to Thonburi. It's meaning is translatable to 'village of the plums', for 'bang' means 'village' and 'kok' is a certain kind of plum who, seemingly, grew at the place in former times in a certain amount.

When the first Europeans, Portuguese, appeared in Siam in 1509, they founded a trade post in Ayutthaya. The first time that Bangkok appeared in a western document is a Portuguese map of 1511. In 1622 a small Dutch trade post, called Fort Amsterdam, was placed here at the banks of Chao Phraya River.

Thonburi was of strategical importance for the Siamese empire of Ayutthaya. In Thonburi, which is since long joined with Bangkok now, were military fortifications (e.g. Wichayen Fortress, now Wichaiprasit). In the late 17th century there was even a French fortification, granted by king Narai. After the palace revolution in 1688 the French, who in that time already tried to colonialize Siam, were driven out of the country by a new king, together with most of the other Westerners who lived in that time in the western communities a bit outside of Ayutthaya.

For more information on that have a look at 'A Depiction of Siam' by Simon de la Loubere and the articles on 'Ayutthaya' and 'Lopburi', which served as a second capital in that time.

Fort Phra Sumen
Phra Sumen Fort in Bangkok by Asienreisender

Octagonal shaped fort Phra Sumen, situated at the corner of the Chao Phraya River and Bang Lamphu Canal. It was built around 1800 CE as a fortified cornerpoint to protect Rattanakosin Island. There is little left of the old city wall itself around Rattanakosin. Image by Asienreisender, 12/2013

Though, Thonburi remained small, although it grew more and more to a trade harbour and became an important stopover on the way to the Siamese capital riverupwards. Bangkok remained meaningless until the aftermath of the 'big bang' in Thai history, when a Burmese army sacked Ayutthaya and destroyed it almost down to the ground (1767 CE). Siamese general Taksin, later king Taksin, gathered remaining Siamese forces and organized the foundation of a new capital at Thonburi in 1772. Taksin had a small palace in Thonburi, and still existing Wat Arun (the Temple of Dawn) at the easter river banks, served as the state temple. For a short time, the famous emerald Buddha, conquered in Vientiane, in that time, was placed in Wat Arun as well.

After Taksin was overthrown himself by another general, Chao Phraya Chakri, who became later crowned as king Yodfa (Rama I) of the contemporary royal dynasty, the capital was moved across the river in 1782. The new center was the place of and around the grand palace, covered by three sides of the river. A canal (klong lot) was built to make it an artificial island (called Rattanakosin Island). Rattanakosin became designed after the model of the fallen former capital Ayutthaya.

Bangkok's name was changed in that time in 'Krung Thep', means 'city of angels'. That's how the Thai People call the capital, and it's just a stump of the longest name of a city on earth. In fact Bangkok's official Thai name is so long that I could almost fill a complete chapter on this website with it. However, internationally known is the city still by it's old name Bangkok.

Classic Shop Houses
Traditional two storey shop houses in Bangkok by Asienreisender

A row of old two storey shop houses in Phrasumane road. Image by Asienreisender, 12/2013

From now on Bangkok's history was a long history of building activities and growth. The surroundings were mostly marshland and many canals were built crisscrossing the swamps. The canals were the main traffic routes, according to a long tradition. Floating markets were common. Bangkok got in the 19th century a reputation as the Venice of the east among Westerners. Nevertheless, from around 1900 on the klongs were more and more filled up and replaced by an expanding roadnet. The nowadays remaining klongs are just a small fraction of the former number. That's certainly one reason for the floods who happen here every few years. Another reason for that is the deforestation upwards the Chao Phraya River and it's tributaries.

It's worth to point out how late Bangkok got a half-way decent roadnet. The Westerners who came here in the 19th century to make business or as diplomats or sailors complained about the lack of any decent road in the city. It was king Mongkut who undertook the first initiative to build roads who were considerably better than the shabby, filthy lanes who exclusively existed mostly parallel to the klongs until then. What is now Rama IV Road was probably the first proper road in Bangkok, followed by Chaoren Krung (New Road), which was built in 1861. King Mongut lived until 1868 und started to establish a roadnet connected by bridges. His successor king Chulalongkorn continued the efforts. The first bridge over the Chao Phraya River was Memorial Bridge. It was hard to establish a sustainable fundament on the swampy marshlands. At the beginning the landfill material was taken from other building sites where new canals were dug out. When we see how Bangkok's crowded roadnet appears nowadays, we can barely believe how it looked here just a 150 years ago.

Bombs on Bangkok
'US Air Raids on Bangkok' by Asienreisender

Bangkok was repeatedly the target for US bombings in the Second World War. They missed Hua Lamphong Railway Station, but hit Rama VI Bridge (left) and Memorial Bridge (right). Photos seen in the small history museum in Dusit Zoo. Images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 5/2012, 2016

The great building boom started in the 1960s and 70s. The big highways were built and more and more people from rural Thailand moved into the capital on the search for making a living. Thailand enjoyed a great financial investment from the USA, who prepared the country as a base for the attacks on it's eastern neighbours Laos, Cambodia and particularly Vietnam.

More growth happened from the 1980s on, together with the construction of the many skyscrapers who coin contemporary downtown Bangkok nowadays. Bangkok became one of the biggest cities in the world. The economic boom lasted until the Asian crisis in 1997/98.

The whole growth of the city since the starting boom in the 1960s happened actually without any kind of proper city planning. A wild, uncontrolled growth along newly built roads appeared, as it is to see in so many Southeast Asian towns and cities. With the city grew the slums.

The Role of City States

Southeast Asian history is coined by city states, who control territory around the town's core. These cities competed with each other and partially conquered other cities and made them tributaries. A full incorporation into the victorious city state was always difficult, if not impossible. It was always so that tributaries tried to gain independence. Often they were also conquered by other, rival city states and became tributaries of them.

'Wall Painting Ramakien in the Grand Royal Palace in Bangkok' by Asienreisender

The construction of canals stood at the beginning of the first civilizations. It was followed by city walls and temple buildings. Image by Asienreisender, Ramakien Epos, Grand Royal Palace Bangkok, 10/2006

The establishment of civilizations was done by dynasties with most powerful godkings as their ruling representatives. These despotic rulers were in command of the workforce which was used to establish hydraulic civilizations who could grew much bigger than less organized communities. The workforce was first employed for irrigation purposes, the construction of greater canal systems who not only allowed a much larger food production, but was also used as a mean of flood control and later as a transport system. The experiences made in the canal constructions were then used to build city walls and then temples, of who some became very sophisticated and large. The large surplus in food production was so used to feed the workforce and later, more and more a growing army. The army was not only a force to protect the city but also to expand the state power. Victorious armees brought slaves as workforce; the slaves were employed for the heaviest, unhealthiest work. The classic examples for hydraulic civilizations are the very first civilizations in history, those in Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley and at the Yangze River. Angkor is a classical hydraulic civilization, a typical example of an Oriental despoty, although a historical late-comer in the 9th century CE. Siam/Thailand, including the historical line from Ayutthaya to Bangkok, follow very much the Angkorean example (see also: Karl A. Wittfogel - Oriental Despotism - A Comparative Study of Total Power)

However, the city was always the primary center of the state, and all the territories and tributaries, even when the state grew very big, remained periphery. All the political activities, the wealth and the glory of the state concentrated in the capital. This pattern shines through until today. Bangkok is not only by distance the biggest city in the country (for times it was 40 times as big as Chiang Mai, the second biggest city in Thailand), it's the economic and political center of the state and represents the state much more than any other place. It was only in the verylast decades, that in other province capitals a wealthy class of businesspeople grew up who claim more participation in political and economic decisions.


Sigths of Bangkok

So, the city has it's attractions. Thailand has an interesting history, and a good deal of historical places in Bangkok are worth a visit. The historical city center is, as mentioned above, Rattanakosin Island. Near to touristic Khao San Road is the Grand Palace situated, dating back to the foundation time of modern Siam/Thailand in the years from 1782 on. Here are the three most representative Thai temples among the other 400 temples in the city. It's Wat Phra Kaeo, which is housing the emerald Buddha, Wat Mahathat with a Buddhist 'university', and Wat Pho, the biggest and oldest temple in Bangkok with the reclining Buddha in it.

Rattanakosin Island and Rattanakosin Era

Bangkok's City Pillar Shrine
'The City Pillar Shrine | Lak Mueang of Bangkok' by Asienreisender

It's one of Thailand's peculiarities that almost any city in the country has a city pillar shrine, called 'lak mueang'. Inside the shrine is usually one, sometimes are two golden pillars erected. The buildings are usually placed into the city's center. It is widely believed in Thailand, that these shrines are inhabited by the city's spirit, a deity called 'chao pho lak mueang' in Thai.

The first of all the Thai shrines was this one on Rattanakosin Island. It was one of the veryfirst constructions on the area of the new capital, and it was a highly symbolic act which happened in April 1782, to establish a new capital.

Since the establishment of the first shrine of this kind, local people believe that it brings them fortune and prosperity when worshiping the sacred place. One can visit such a city pillar shrine at almost any time and meeting Thai People praying to the spirit and offering incense sticks, flower garlands and other items and lighting candles.

The pillar we see here consists of acacia wood, what is called the 'tree of victory' (chaiyapreuk) in Thai language. This one is said measures 470cm in total, of who 270cm are in the ground. It's diameter is 74cm, and in a hollow space inside is a horoscope for Bangkok hidden.

The shrine got renovated in the 1850s, when king Mongkut (Rama IV) added a second, smaller pillar to the first. This second one is not to see here, because there was kind of another renovation going on at the time the photo was shot.

There is a legend that at the construction time four peoples lives were sacrified by placing their bodies at all four corners of the fundament. Their spirits, so the believe, would guard the city. It could be more than a legend, for old chronicles describe such human sacrifices for the royal and state buildings of Ayutthaya. There, it's said, were preferably pregnant women thrown bound into the earthen holes of the fundaments of representative buildings and buried alive. Pregnants and their unborn were believed to be the strongest guardian spirits possible.

After the erection of this first city pillar shrine in Rattanakosin Bangkok, more of these shrines were established in other Siamese cities, to represent the central power of the capital. An early example is Songkhla in south Thailand. In 1992 there was an order from the ministry of interiour announced that any town in Thailand should have a lak mueang. Some of them are indeed of newer dates, and there are still some few places in the country who haven't one.

These shrines in the provinces are of very different styles. The one in Yasothon, Isan, looks perfectly Chinese, while that in Surin or Pratchuap Khiri Khan are styled in the way of an Angkorean prang. In Roi Et the shrine is placed in an open-air pavillon on the hill of the town's central island.

Images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2015, 2016

Rattanakosin has two meanings. Rattanakosin Island is the very foundation area of modern Bangkok in a slope of the eastern banks of Chao Phraya River. It's an artificial island, which is bordered by the river and an artificial canal. Rattanakosin is therefore the historical center of the city with the Grand Palace compound, a large number of buddhist temples and many other historical buildings. The term roots in the Sanskrit word 'ratnakosindra', means 'Indras Jewel'.

The move of the Siamese capital from Thonburi at the Chao Phraya's western bank to Rattanakosin was reasoned with an enhanced safety. The Siamese' arch enemy, the Burmese, would have to cross the river first in case of an attack. However, the trauma of the downfall of Ayutthaya didn't repeat; the Burmese power faded away in the 19th century in the wars with Britain.

Another reason of a new palace foundation may have been to symbolize a break between the new dynasty and former king Taksin, who was assassinated. Taksin's wooden palace building in Thonburi, Derm Palace, who was in direct neighbourhood to Wat Arun, was situated in a way which didn't allow further expansion.

The outer canal, nowadays Bang Lamphu and Ong Ang Canal, was dug out in 1785 by thousands of Laotion prisoners of war. The canal was paralleled by a high brick wall, which does not exist anymore. The last remains of it are Phra Sumen Fortress and Fort Mahakan.

Map of Rattanakosin Island
'Map of Rattanakosin Island | Bangkok' by Asienreisender

Bangkok's historical center. It's literally packed with sights, big and small.

Rattanakosin is also termed a historical era in Siamese/Thai history. Rattanakosin Era started in 1782 CE with the inthronation of king Rama I (Yotfa) of the Chakri Dynasty and the foundation of the new palace. Since the era is bound to the ruling dynasty, it's still lasting.

The Grand Royal Palace of Bangkok

Fifteen years after Ayutthaya's downfall begun the construction of a new Grand Palace at the east bank of the Chao Phraya River. This palace for the Siamese royalty was designed after the same pattern as the former palace in Ayutthaya, Wang Luang, was. On June 10th, 1782, king Yotfa (Rama I) of the Chakri Dynasty moved in a ritual drive over the Chao Phraya River into the new complex. The Grand Palace of Bangkok served as royal Thai residence in the time between 1782 to 1934, when the royal family left Siam, respectively 1946, when king Bhumibol finally decided to change the residence to Chitralada Palace. After the military coup of 1932 and the abolition of absolute monarchy in Thailand, all state agencies were removed of the palace.

The Grand Royal Palace Compound
'The Grand Palace Compound, seen from Sanam Luang' by Asienreisender

The Royal Palace of Bangkok, seen from the northern front at Sanam Luang. Image by Asienreisender, 8/2015

Reclining Buddha, Wat Pho
'Reclining Buddha in Wat Pho' by Asienreisender

Here we see another superlative: the reclining Buddha in Wat Pho, one of the big tourist attractions of the Grand Palace, is with a length of 46m and a height of 15m the largest reclining Buddha in the world. Image by Asienreisender, 10/2006

Being one of the most famous tourist sites of Thailand and partially a large museum, the Grand Palace is not only a historical site, but still in use for several annual royal ceremonies and other state functions. There are also still a few royal offices situated in the palace area.

The area was naturally swampy and had to be drained by canals. Another reason for Ong Ang Canal, which borders Rattanakosin Island to the east, is that the new capital should be a revival of Ayutthaya, which was also surrounded by water.

A small community of wealthy Chinese merchands lived on the ground at that time. They had to move into a new suburb which is now known as Sampeng, Bangkok's Chinatown along Thanon Yaowarat. The first, temporary palace buildings were made of wood and leaves. A massive, wooden palisade encircled the compound at the beginning. Later, the palisades were replaced by a high brick wall over 1,900m length. The building materials for the palace construction were brought by river ships from the ruins of Ayutthaya. Remarkably, the workers who brought the material from the old capital were ordered not to use stones from temple remains who were still partially intact. Most of the work in the first phase of the construction was done by conscripted and corvee labour.

Wat Pho Temple Compound
'Wat Pho Temple Complex' by Asienreisender

The Wat Pho compound and a glance into the ubosot. Many Thai People go there for praying every day. For the wall paintings see the image below. Images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2012, 2013, 2016

The whole complex consists of a great number of different buildings on an areal of 2.6km2. Since the foundation in the 18th century many modifications were made and again and again new buildings were erected; the latest building has been inaugurated in the year 2006.

The palace complex consists mainly of three parts. Any of them was designed for the purposes of those who lived and worked there. In the inner court (wang nai) was the private residence of the king, some gardens and the villas of the queen and the many other royal wifes (chao chom). Except the king there lived only women, their kids and servants in the inner court, and it was guarded by female guards. The inner court was fascinating Western visitors until the 20th century and was often called the 'city of women'.

Wat Phra Kaeo
'Wat Phra Kaeo' by Asienreisender

Wat Phra Kaeo, situated at the northeaster corner of the Grand Palace, houses the famous Emerald Buddha. Image by Asienreisender, 10/2006

The outer court housed ministries, the treasure department and the royal guards. The central part consists itself of four complexes. In the south of the central part lies Wat Phra Kaeo Museum. It was originally built as a royal mint institution. The whole palace compound was designed in a way that the king never had to leave the palace grounds. To present himself to the people served a balcony.

The old temple Wat Potharam, directly south of the palace, got renovated and expanded and renamed in Wat Phra Chetuphon, still bettern known as Wat Pho.

North of the Grand Palace lies a huge, free area. That is Sanam Luang, the royal square. Occasionally, grand festivals happen here. It is also the place for the royal cremations.

In the 150 years between 1782 and 1932 the royal palace, who was addressed as the Grand Palace from 1851 on, was the administrative and religious center of Siam. The huge compound was the seat of the country's government with the monarch as the head of state, the royal family, ministers, officials, courtiers, servants, concubines, guards and craftsmen, altogether thousands of inhabitants. A particular set of palace laws was created to organize the life behind the palace walls. The Grand Palace was therefore a city within the city.

Photocompositions Grand Palace of Bangkok

Wat Phra Kaeo and the Palace Area

'Photocomposition Grand Palace' by Asienreisender

The palace compound consists of a large number of very different buildings. The stylistic elements are often very mixed-up in one single building, combining classical Oriental shapes with classical European designs. Since it's foundation in 1782 there was ongoing expansion, change and restauration on the palace grounds.

There are many guards in the palace area; many of them are of stone and belong to the mystical world of the hindu and buddhist world. The officer in the white uniform is one of the royal palace guards.

Images and photocompositon by Asienreisender, 2006, 2010, 2013, 2016

Wat Phra Kaeo

Wat Phra Kaeo by Asienreisender

Wat Phra Kaeo with the emerald Buddha inside, seen from the north outside the palace walls. Image by Asienreisender, 12/2013

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The Ramakien Epos

'Ramakien Epos | Wat Phra Kaeo | Grand Palace | Bangkok' by Asienreisender

Although Thailand is always seen as a buddhist country, that is true only on the surface. Former religious traditions blend heavily into the official doctrine. That is, above all, the hindu cosmos with it's many legendary figures and deities. The Ramayana is the classical hindu epos. However, the Thai nobility created a local Thai version of it, what is the Ramakien.

Ramayana and Ramakien are originally written sources. To bring the stories close to the people, who have been over the course of history until today mostly illiterates, in temples and religious publications a lot of images illustrate the old stories. Since the royalty is the highest representation of the official religious doctrine in Thailand, the Ramakien in the Grand Palace marks the classical iconography.

The Ramakien Gallery runs around an outer wall of Wat Phra Kaeo. It's full of details and comes from the time of king Yodfa (Rama I) of the Chakri Dynasty. In 1927 the paintings got a full restoration which was reason for critics to claim that the restoration was not fully following the traditional scheme. However, it's interesting to see how many architectonical details of the real Grand Palace and it's walls and fortifications has been overtaken by the artists into their works.

Images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2006, 2016

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Rattanakosin Temples

Wat Pho, Wall Painting
'Wat Pho, Bangkok, Wall Temple Paintings' by Asienreisender

The temple paintings in Wat Pho are among the most traditional in Thailand. Unfortunately it's difficult to have a closer look on them, because there are bars who hinder visitors to get closer to the walls. Image by Asienreisender, 12/2013

Visiting temples may be a pretty boring undertaking for many, but it's rewarded by many vivid temple paintings. Although it's written in the guide books, that there were some of the finest temple paintings of the country in Bangkok, I was disappointed by what I saw. In Wat Pho or Wat Bowonniwet the paintings are barely accessible (barred, one can not come close to most of them) and what I saw was severely faded out and needs defenitely a thorough restauration. The paintings I found in other parts of Thailand look partially much, much better, therefore most of them are clearly not of such a high artistic quality and rather painted in recent years.

The National Museum

Between the Grand Palace and Khao San district there is the national museum which is the largest in Southeast Asia, a national art gallery, the national theater and the national library.

National Theatre and Gallery
Photocomposition 'National Theatre and National Gallery' by Asienreisender

The National Theatre, close to the National Museum, performes classical Thai drama and stories from the Ramakien epos.

The National Art Gallery of Thailand lies at the northern side of Thanon Chao Fa (Prince Road), bordering the tourist district of Khao San Road. It was opened in 1902 as a coinage house. The building's architectonical style is modelled after a factory building in Birmingham. It was altered into the National Gallery in 1974.

Besides the presentation of classical Thai art, the focus is on contemporary and modern Thai art. There is also a permanent exhibition of works of the two Thai kings Vajiravudh and Bhumibol.

Images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2013, 2015, 2016

Bangkok's National Museum was the first museum in Thailand. It consists of a number of different buildings. Originally, the place was occupied by Wang Na Palace, the palace of king Mongkut's viceroy (who was his younger brother). The main building, classical Thai style, was the viceroy's former reception hall, Siwamokhaphiman Hall. King Mongkut himself gained already a growing private collection which was set into an own building in the Grand Palace area; this building does not exist anymore.

Mongkut's successor Chulalongkorn opened in 1874 the first 'public' museum on Thai ground, also inside the Grand Palace area.

After the death of the viceroy, Wang Na Palace was not in use for decades, until king Chulalongkorn decided 1887 to move the museum's collection over.

After a time of neglect, the museum buildings were desolate, but restoration didn't happen until the early 1950s.

Photocomposition National Museum Bangkok

Bangkok Museum, Wang Na Palace

The museum shows pieces from different eras of history on Thai ground. Phra Phuttha Sihing, a Buddha statue of the Dvaravati Culture, is one of the crown jewels of the museum. Another section is dedicated to the excavations at Ban Chiang, a stone-age and bronze-age settlement which is considered being the most significant prehistorical site in Southeast Asia.

Thai history comes into focus with a section on Lanna and one of Sukothai. The famous stela no. 1 from Sukothai (which originality is under dispute by historians) is displayed here; the one in Sukothai Historical Park is merely a copy. Most of the artefacts are, as always, of religious nature and mostly buddhist. That's so as well in the section on Ayutthaya.

Together with the many artefacts from Thailand come more from other Southeast Asian countries as Cambodia and Java and more.

Additionally there are plenty of samples of the many Thai crafts, of who many are not only traditional but often still alive. Items from different king's are to see as well.

A separate building is reserved for some various royal funeral carriages.

It's also worth to spend some time in the museum's garden, where many statues are displayed who didn't find space inside the buildings.

The National Museum of Bangkok is often referred to as the biggest museum in Southeast Asia. It's placed between Chao Phraya River and the northwestern corner of Sanam Luang.

I visited the museum first in 2006. It cost 40 Baht and included a qualified guided tour made by an English lady. Photographing was allowed, unlike now. The museum's fee has been rosen up to 200 Baht (for foreigners) in 2013 and the place has been upgraded. One has to keep in mind that the museum, very unfortunately, is closed on Mondays and Tuesdays.

Photocomposition 'National Museum of Bangkok' by Asienreisender

A few examples of the museum's pieces are shown on the photocomposition. A stone tablet, showing the birth of Buddha (1). It's originally from Angkor Wat, early 12th century, although Angkor Wat was a pure hindu temple. I refer here to the information given at the museum. It's a depiction completely different to all other newborn Buddha images one sees in the temples of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia.

(2) shows an antefex with Aspara, 13th/14th century, Lopburi art, found in Lopburi Province.

The audience hall of Wang Na Palace (3), the main building of the museum compound and a royal pavilion (4).

The figure (5) is an 8th century Boddhisattva from Java, Sailendra art, while (6) is a striding Buddha, art. Both are among the most precious pieces in the museum.

The reliefs at the bottom (7) depict nine hindu deities. The piece originates from Prasat Lolei, Cambodia, 10th century, classical Khmer art. This piece together with (1) and (2) are to see in the museum's garden, together with many more impressing sculptures.

All images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2006, 2013, 2016

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Thammasat University

In direct neighbourhood to the National Museum lies Tha Phra Chan campus of Thammasat University. Thammasat is, besides Chulalongkorn University (founded in 1923, being the first and oldest university in Thailand), among the most reknowned universities of the country, and it's not a foundation by the king, but by a bourgeoise government. The term 'thammasat' roots in the sanskrit word 'dharmasastra' and refers to the 'teaching of the dharma'. The dharma concerns a traditional ethic, religious, political and judiciary code.

The university's emblem shows Thailand's constitution, in the background a dharmachakra, the buddhist wheel of law. It represents both buddhist values and those of democracy. As an honourable act, at the university's 70th birthday in 2004, a ten bath coin with the Thammasat emblem was emitted.

Tha Phra Chan Campus
'Tha Phra Chan Campus' by Asienreisender

Thammasat campus on Rattanakosin Island is the core of the university. Behind the Pridi Banomyong Memorial lies the tower which is a symbol of the university. At the campus' entrance is a memorial placed for the killed students and democratic activists of the events in October 1976.

Images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2012, 2013, 2016

From the foundation on, the philosophy of the university was to 'teach students to love and cherish democracy'. The philosophy involves the idea that also the common people have to be provided with education, which was limited in Siam until then merely to the nobility.

As the university's father Pridi Banomyong is revered, of who is a statue erected on Tha-Phrachan Campus, close to the Chao Phraya River banks. Every year, Pridi's birthday is officially celebrated and students bring flowers and garlands to the memorial.

Faculties are law, politics, diplomacy, economy, trade, accountancy, sociology, journalism, mass communications and more. In 1986 the university gained a new campus about 40km north of Bangkok (Rangsit) with faculties for natural sciences, technology and medicine. Meanwhile, most of the teachings happen out there.

Nowadays, Thammasat University has four campuses in other cities, what is Pattaya, Lampang, Udon Thani and Narathiwat.

Thammasat University is a member of LAOTSE, an international network of leading universities in Europe and Asia. There are numerous cooperations between Thammasat and European universities, like Sciences Po and HEC Paris, taking part in it are the universities of Lund, Nottingham, Cologne, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Bielefeld, Munich, Darmstadt and more.

Pridi Banomyong
'Pridi Banomyong' by Asienreisender

Pridi Banomyong, 1900-1983, founding father of Thammasat University and it's first rector. The building in the background is a symbol of the university; Pribi's office was in there for fifteen years.

Pridi was born 1900 in Ayutthaya into a family of Siamese nobility. He played an important role in Thai politics in the mid 20th century. After a career in the Thai judiciary he took a key role in the Siamese Revolution of 1932 and the abolishment of absolute monarchy in the country. Pridi worked out the first constitution for Siam which was adapted by the new government in 1932.

The founding of Thammasat University was following the idea to educate a new kind of academics who were able and willing to serve in a democratic manner of civil responsibility. Pridi was university rector from 1934 till 1949, when he was eventually forced into exile.

Images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2012, 2015, 2016

In World War II, the campus was used as an internment place for civilians from western countries who fought against the axis powers. The Thai guards, it's said, rather protected the interned from Japanese abuses. The university also served as the secret headquarter of the Seri Thai (free Thai) movement, a resistance movement against the Japanese presence in Thailand.

In the 1970s, Thammasat University was an intellectual center for the progressive, democratic movement of the time in Thailand. The university played a key role in the people's uprise of 1973, when the military dictatorship under general Thanom Kittikachorn was overthrown. Thammasat's then headmaster, Sanya Dharmasakti, became for a time Thailand's primeminister.

The democratic movement and the new headmaster Puey Ungphakorn were seen as the archenemy of the political right. They were denounced as radical communists and seen as a dangerous threat for the country. In August 1975 there was a first violent attack of the red giaurs, a right-wing boy scout organization, in which they tried to burn down university buildings.

In 1976, former military dictator Thanom Kittikachorn came back from exile and triggered mass demonstrations against him. The non-violent protests of the democratic left was brutally beaten down on October 6th 1976 by police, red giaurs, other right-wing and paramilitary groups and a savage, cheering mob of supporters and opportunists. The brutal attack was meaned to kill as many students and democracy activists as possible, and many, estimated more than a hundred, lost their lives, being massacred in a most barbarious manner.

The Thammasat massacre was maybe Thailand's darkest hour since the fall of Ayutthaya. Consequently, thousands of students joined the communist guerilla army who fought between the 1960s and 1980s against the Thai military.

In 1992, activists from Thammasat Universtity again played a key role in the opposition against the military government.

Since it's foundation in 1934, between 200,000 and 300,000 students have graduated here. Among them is a great number of people who made high careers in politics, administration or business. Puey Ungphakorn was the governor of the Bank of Thailand before he became dean of the faculty of economics and later university rector in the 1970s. Five of Thailand's primeministers did study here. Among them is Abhisit Vejjajiva, primeminister from 2008 to 2011.

The Amulet Market

Directly south of Thammasat University, between Chao Phraya River and Wat Mahathat, lies Bangkok's amulet market. It's not the only one in the city, but this one here is probably the largest in the whole country, and that means what. There are plenty of shops who display an enormous variety of amulets. Most of them are little monk images and Buddha statues one can wear around the neck; they come with a lot of other religious respectively semi-religious items like talismans against all kinds of evil, including mothers-in-law, with charms for business success or to help succeeding an examina. Also so called 'traditional medicine' is sold here. Unfortunately, that comes all too often with the exploitation and brutal killing and preparing of animal parts. Superstition is big business in a world in which most people are still very uneducated and have very little control over their lives and to fear many dangers, real or imagined.

The Amulet Industries
Bangkoks Amulet Market by Asienreisender

Bangkok's amulet market. There is a big industry of amulets and Buddha images in Thailand. It's easy to produce and profitable to sell. Image by Asienreisender, 12/2013

Thailand's homes, offices and all other places, wherever one goes, are equipped with plenty of figures and images of religious content. Take the spirit houses alone - there is practically no building in the whole country without a spirit house in the garden or inside. The spirit houses are often crammed with such items like monk amulets and more. I have in no other country in the world seen so many idols and magic items as in Thailand. A whole industry lives from it, and they are as innovative as any other industry: they offer a remedy for any occasion in life. You want the girl next door? Have to get rid of your toothache? Need a lot of cash? There is what for everything. The story for what a certain item is good for can change considerably, depending on the memory, phantasy and whish-thinking of the people who 'use' them.

Some of the items are of a very sinister nature and remind rather to voodoo.

Apart from the simple items who are new, there are also antique pieces to buy, who can gain a high price. Particularly if there is something of the 'real' Buddha inside the amulet, like a Buddha hair, a faction of Buddha's robe, an eyelid of Buddha, but also mortal remains of highly revered monks of the past and present, of who is believed they hold strong powers or are Boddhisatva, already enlightened.

At some temples the monks do a great effort in directing prayers to amulets to infuse them with spiritual power. If the monks are revered, the items can gain high market prices.

People in dangerous professions often use amulets as life protection. It's said that the Thai Army equipped their soldiers in the south, who are fighting against Muslim rebells, with special amulets.

Funny to see sometimes the 'experts', who prove amulets with a magnifying glass, as if it were a rare, precious coin or stamp, to make sure that it is an original and not counterfeited.

By the way, so far I see things, Buddha himself would have barely agreed with the idea of supernatural power in such items. He would probably have called such believes illusions.

When believers claim that their amulet is a failure, salespeople usually respond with the argument that one has to be a faithful enough Buddhist to make them work out.

Amulets, amulets, amulets...

On Bangkok's Amulet Market

'Bangkok's Amulet Market' by Asienreisender

It's incredible that the fetishism is treated like a science, but a great deal of people here believe in the power of amulets in different degrees. There is a great deal of literature about these things and frequently appearing magazines are to see at many kiosks.

All images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2012, 2013, 2016

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East and north of the Grand Palace stretches an area with a lot of historical buildings. Among them are as well many of these typical 19th and 20th century two storey shop houses. Most of them are still in use as what they always were: a shop downstairs, and housing for the shopkeeper family upstairs. In this area are also the giant swing, the city pillar shrine, Mahakan fortress, the democracy monument and a number of old wats.

The Democracy Monument

One of Bangkok's landmarks, often one of the first remarkable monuments a foreign visitor get's to see when arriving in the city , is the Democracy Monument. It lies inmiddle of a huge roundabout at Ratchadamnoen Road, the royal highway, at two thirds on the way from Sanam Luang to the Golden Mount. It has so much to do with democracy like a tiger with vegetarianism.

Photocomposition Democracy Monument

The Democracy Monument was ordered in 1939 by Thailand's then ruling military junta chief field marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram, to memorize the 'Siamese Revolution' of 1932, what was in fact merely a military coup. It was meaned to become a center of a modernized and western orientated Bangkok after the model of Paris with Thanon Ratchadamnoen as a Thai Champs-Elysees and the monument as a reminiscence to the Arc de Triomphe.

The designing artists were architect Mew Aphaiwong, brother of former primeminister Khuang Aphaiwong, and the Italian sculptor Corrado Feroci, who got Thai nationality and adapted the Thai name Silpa Bhirasi. He sculptured the reliefs and figures of the monument in the fascist manner of his contemporary Italy.

The whole circumstances and design of the Democracy Monument are thoroughly anti-democratic. It would be better addressed as the Thai Military Monument.

After the decision for the construction was made, the residents of the road got a ticket to leave their homes within the next sixty days, because Ratchadamnoen would get broadened to become a huge boulevard. Hundreds of big trees, who contributed very much to a pleasant microclimate in the city and gave shadow, where cut and replaced by concrete. That alone gave already a good introduction of how the government dealt with peoples rights and needs.

'The Democracy Monument | Bangkok' by Asienreisender

At any wing are two reliefs. Makes eight alltogether. However, there are only the four different reliefs shown here, for any of them appears twice.

At the outer side of any wing a naga well is spitting a water fountain. The nagas are coming out of the beak of a garuda.

On the 2010 image we see a lot of people around the memorial. That's cleaning workers. The image has been made at the time of the 2010 demonstrations in April.

The monument's center piece is a not too big turret whith a shrine on it's roof. On the three meters tall rook's top lies an allegory of the constitution on top of two golden bowls, all in concrete with gold paint. The six doors of the building are usually closed. They are meaned to represent independence, inner [!] peace, equality, freedom, trade [!] and education.

The central tower is guarded by four huge concrete wings, all 24m high. They symbolize the three army sections of the land army, the airforce and the navy; the fourth means the police. (I miss a fifth one for the secret services). Originally there were even 75 cannons placed around the ensemble.

Rich in details are the reliefs at the wings sockets. They are a typical representation of 1930s fascist propaganda. It's dominated by the military in many appearances as the protector of the people. The people appear merely as labourers and peasants. There is only one woman represented; she is nursing a baby - a future soldier or worker, as it is to guess.

One of the reliefs, called 'Incarnation of Balance and Good Life', shows in it's center an allegoric figure with a sword in one hand and a balance in the other. It's posing in a buddhist meditation seat. It's surrounded by groups of people who represent education, religion, the judiciary and an athlete with clearly European face traits. These reliefs all repeate twice.

'The Democracy Monument in the Flood of 1942' by Asienreisender

The Democracy Monument in the heavy flood of 1942. Photo seen at the small war historical museum in Dusit Zoo. Image by Asienreisender, 5/2012

The monument is de facto meaned to give legitimation to the regime of the time, which came in power due to the military coup of 1932. The coup was accomplished not only by officers of the Thai army, but also by some civilians (like Pridi Banomyong) who aimed to invite democracy in Siam. Both wings were bound together in keeping the aristocracy away from regaining power, but divided by huge differences in shaping a new government. The liberal, democratic wing in the spirit of Pridi tried to reform the economic basics of the society, but the authoritarian wing under field marshal Praek Phibunsongkhram gained the upper hand. In the time of the planning and completion of the monument, 1939/40, Thailand was a military dictatorship.

Very interesting is that the monarchy, which plays in contemporary Thailand such a central, semi-devine role, is not at all represented in the monument's design.

Despite the authoritarian, militaristic spirit of the monument, it was repeatedly the center of democratic protests and demonstrations in the past. Particularly so in the years 1973, 1976 and 1992. The mass demonstrations in recent years like those in 2009/2010 and 2013/2014, who were also partially centered around the monument, weren't actually democratic movements anymore. Democracy was always a stillbirth, and it fell with the rise of neoliberalism completely in oblivion. There is no democracy in the world, although any political movement, as far away from democracy it may be, is using the good name of it in it's favour. Even Democratic Kampuchea did and North Korea does.

All images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2006, 2010, 2012, 2015, 2016

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The Giant Swing

A really peculiar sight on Rattanakosin Island is the Giant Swing (Sao Ching Cha), which is placed in a square surrounded by roads. It's a huge, 30m tall wooden structure with a red paint coat. It was built here in 1784. It's meaning goes back to an ancient royal court ceremony which was held annually already in historic and later also in Ayutthaya. The ceremony is part of the ten days festival at the Brahman New Year.

Sao Ching Cha
'The Giant Swing' by Asienreisender

After Brahma, in the hindu legend, created the world, he sent Shiva to prove it. When Shiva came down from heaven, two giant nagas wrapped around his legs to stabilize the earth. Afterwards, the nagas celebrated the event in the sea. The swing ceremony is meaned as a revival of the old legend.

In an old Siamese belive, Shiva is now every year again coming down for ten days. Since Shiva is a blithe god, he likes to be entertained. And that is reason for another grand festival with music, acrobats and processions where colourful costumes are presented. The English orientalist Horace Geoffrey Quaritch Wales, who wrote a number of publications on Southeast Asian culture and history, witnessed the swing ceremony in 1930 and described it in one of his books, 'Siamese State Ceremonies - Their History and Function' (1931). You can find it for free in the internet.

The core of the ceremony (triyampavai-tripavai) starts at the seventh day with a procession in which Shiva, represented by a high noble man, nominated by the king of Thailand, is carried on a bier from Wat Ratcha Burana to the swing. After the god takes place then in a temporarily built pavilion, the swinging starts.

There are three groups of each four men who are wearing kind of naga hats. One after the other group now enters the swing which is set in motion by pulling a rope. The swing is aligned in east-west direction. Before, there was a money bag put high up at the end of a long bamboo stick. It's now the task of the frontman in the swing, to gain the bag with his teeth, while the last of the four is doing his best to move the swing as favourable as possible towards the bag. Since the bag hangs very high, the swing has to reach an almost vertical position to make the snatch possible. The whole show is a great attraction for the public and, indeed, not without danger. Many accidents happened in the past and were seen as a bad omen for the coming new year.

After the completion of the ceremony, all three groups of swingers take their leave from Shiva by making the Thai wai.

Besides of this main ceremony are many others and a lot of prayers are held to honour Shiva and Ganesha.

All images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2012, 2015, 2016

In the time of king Rama II (1809 - 1824) the swing got struck by lightning. The ceremony wasn't held then until a restoration in 1920. Since there happened several severe accidents, the ceremony was ceased in 1935. More restorations happened in 1959 and 2005. New, massive teak logs were brought from Phrae Province in northern Thailand. A new inauguration was done in 2007.

Khao San Road

The traveller and touristic heart of Bangkok is the surrounding of Khao San Road, about a kilometer north of the Grand Palace, still on Rattanakosin Island.

Khao San means as much as raw, white rice, and refers to the early times of the street, which was built in the late 19th century. Khao San Road was the center for the rice trade in Siam's capital, and a number of mercantile buildings was errected here.

Photocomposition (Thanon) Khao San Road

In the early 1980s a first guesthouse opened here, followed by more in the following years. Beginning as a secret tip for backpackers, it became Thailand's first address for budged travellers with the rise of mass tourism. Soon the actually short road, which is not more than 400m long, was too small for all the visitors and the guesthouses, hotels, shops and so on so, the buzz expanded into the neighbouring roads. Nowadays, Khao San Road is synonym with the main travellers quarter of Bangkok, and it's by far no more exclusively for budged tourists. Meanwhile a number of guesthouses and hotels in all price ranges established here, up to three star hotels with swimming pools and more to offer for the pretencious respectively wealthier tourists. Prizes rose generally considerably - cheap was yesterday, or better last week.

Meanwhile also the big food chains like McDonalds, Burger King and others have found their way into Khao San Road.

'Khao San Road | Thanon Khao San' by Asienreisender

Another, longer main road of the tourist district is Soi Rambuttri, which leads around the temple ground of Wat Chana Songkhram. Although Khao San Road and Soi Rambuttri are, together with a number of sideroads, closed for common traffic, there are still far too many vehicles, including cars, going through the crowd here.

However, Khao San Road itself is still the center of the tourist district. It's also a huge commercial area, busy all around the clock, mostly after sunset, when the crowd gets really dense here. Masses of restaurants seam the roadside, together with street vendors of all kind of weired stuff, travel agencies, cloth stores, Indian taylors, bookshops, tatoo shops and more and more and more. One get's all kind of Thai handicrafts, partially from the mountain tribes of the north, clothes, clothes, clothes without end, verymost of it in my humble taste unusable crap, shoes, backpacks, all kind of local food of the really rich Thai cuisine, but also western food, although it's never that good as it is in the home countries, and used and new books and magazines. The food includes grilled insects of different kinds and more really exotic stuff one sees for the first time in life. The sales of CD and DVD copies of lots of movies, games and other software was once, at least for a few years, a grand market, but is declining since the rise of the internet and peer-to-peer torrents. One can get here also conterfeited ID cards, high school or university diplomas, driver licences, journalist ID's or student cards. Much stuff of counterfeited brand products is available here for relatively little money. Opticians, massage parlours and hookers are around, and beside them a growing number of male prostitutes who target Western women, an emerging sex market. The atmosphere is coined by hectical business on one side and a mad consumerism and hedonism on the other. There seems to be a market for any Western and Oriental perversion.

'Neon Advertisement in Khao San Road' by Asienreisender

Image by Asienreisender, 10/2006

Partying is a great issue here. Some newly arrived tourists drive immediately crazy here in all the mica and do the weirdest things. By the way, the beginning of the famous movie 'The Beach' plays in Bangkok's Khao San Road.

One meets people here from many places all over the world. After the years when Khao San Road became designed mostly for the Western taste, in the last years the mixture of crowd here changed. More and more Chinese, Koreans, Japanese anyway and people from other Asian countries come here. One meets many Australians, Americans, Europeans from central and west Europe, less from southern Europe and others from eastern Europe. Israelis in groups, young people who just finished their military service and are going to spend the money they got payed out at the end.

A strange thing is that most of the visitors, of who are many young, means in their twenthies, are looking in the exotic place first for the consumer goods they are familiar to. They want the beer they drink at home, they want the same food and other stuff, even the bloody shampoo should be the usual one. A part of the shops here is serving this taste, which seems very inappropriate.

Safety is an issue. Scams are frequent, overpriced items the least. The tuktuk scam is one of the harmless ones. The driver promises you to drive you for a very low fare or even for free. The trouble is, that he will stop at one, two, three or more shops, mostly Indian taylors and wants you to spend at least twenty minutes inside. For that he get's a commission and you get bothered by the Indian salesmen (always men) and waste your time. Also mugging and pick-pocketing happens here. Many just arrived tourists, being in a group, feel all too safe, particularly when being on drugs and euphoric. A bad thing is that many travellers take advantage on fellow travellers, and theft among tourists is not seldom.

The advantage of staying here is first the vicinity to all the many sights on Rattanakosin Island. Dusit District and Hua Lamphong Railway Station I visited repeatedly by walking. Siam Square can be reached by the klong ferry on Maha Nak Canal near Mahakan Fort or, easier, by bus from Ratchadamnoen Road. One also meets here and then a reasonable fellow traveller.

All images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2006. 2010, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2016

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'Crowd in Khao San Road' by Asienreisender

Crowd in Khao San Road. Live awakes around dusk, while on early morning and forenoons Khao San Road is empty and relatively quiet. Image by Asienreisender, 5/2012

Since Bangkok's airport Suvarnabhumi is the central gate to Southeast Asia for the majority of tourists from overseas, it's the startig point for the most visitors to travel other parts of Thailand and also the neighboring countries. The travel agencies here sell a wide variety of tours all around the country and more.

Wat Chana Songkhram is, by the way, a foundation from the early times of Rattanakosin Bangkok. It was founded by Mon People who supported the Siamese in their wars against the Burmese invaders in the 18th century. Now it's a greater temple district inmiddle of busy Khao San District and one of the quiet spots in the city.

Wat Bowonniwet is one of the temples who rank highest in Thailand. It was built in 1829, and three kings spend some time there as buddhist monks: king Mongkut, Rama VII and king Bhumibol Adulyadej. The main attraction is an old Buddha which is said was created in the year 1357. The wall paintings of the temple alone are worth a visit, for they represent Thai classic temple paintings, although they could need some restoration.

In the northeast of Rattanakosin Island, between the tourist center of Khao San and Fort Phra Sumen, lies a small Muslim community. On the other side of the main Chakrabongse Road is Banglamphu Market, where more masses of clothes and other accessoires are for sale.

Wat Chana Songkhram / Wat Bowonniwet
'Wat Chana Songkhram and Wat Bowonniwet' by Asienreisender

Temple paintings in the two prominent wats of Khao San Road's surroundings. Those in Wat Bowonniwet could need restoration; light there is also too faint for photographing. Images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 5/2012, 2016

Phra Sumen Fortress

'Fort Phra Sumen' by Asienreisender

Fort Phra Sumen is a leftover of Rattanakosin's 18th century city wall. Image by Asienreisender, 10/2006

At the northern edge of Rattanakosin Island, where Klong Bang Lamphu joins Chao Phraya River, lies the fortress of Phra Sumen. Built in 1783, it was one of fourteen fortresses protecting Rattanakosin. It became obsolete in the 19th century and is now only one of two of the former fortresses around Rattanakosin who are left. As many historical spots in Thailand, it's nicely restorated and surrounded by a green, clean park (Santichaiprakarn Park) at the riverbanks, where people can have a rest from the city's hectic. River views are great here, one has a good view for example on modernist Rama VIII Bridge further north. At nightime the fort is illuminated.

Photocomposition Phra Sumen

'Phra Sumen Fortress | Bangkok' by Asienreisender

The octagon-shaped watchtower is usually closed, so that visitors can not have a look inside. The construction extends over 45m in north-south direction, has three storeys and staircases inside, together with a cellar which served as a shelter and storage for the cannons ammunition and gunpowder. Fortunally, Bangkok has never been attacked by a foreign army (although bombed in the Second World War by American warplanes) and Phra Sumen never faced battle. There is no entrance charged for Santichaiprakarn Park.

The image top bottom shows impressive Rama VIII Bridge at night, seen from the river banks at Santichaiprakarn Park.

All images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2006, 2010, 2013, 2016

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The really nice river promenade here continues southwards by a narrow concrete gangway directly along the riverbanks until Phra Pin Klao Bridge. Along the way are two of the ferry piers, where one can enter the next ferry boat to travel the river up- or downwards.

The Royal Highway - Ratchadamnoen Boulevard

The royal highway between the Grand Palace and Dusit Palace may be the most representative road in Thailand. It's about 3.3km long and consists of three parts.

The inner part, Thanon Ratchadamnoen Nai, starts at the northeastern corner of the Grand Palace, runs over 550m parallel to Sanam Luang, along Bangkok's city pillar shrine, Thailand's high court and the bombastic ministry of defence. At the statue of three-headed elephant Erawan it turns right into Thanon Ratchadamnoen Klang, the middle section of the boulevard.

Ratchadamnoen Avenue

Ratchadamnoen Klang, the middle part, is another 1,300m long and leads towards east. After about two thirds of the distance the Democracy Monument is placed into the center of a huge, seven-lane roundabout in the middle of the highway. Remarkable are the business buildings who where built in the time of the new arrangement of the boulevard in the late 1930s, art-deco style, together with the Democracy Monument. There is the royal Hotel Rattanakosin, a memorial for the October 1973 movement and an art hall with the name of the queen and the remains of fort Mahakan, the only surviver of the old city wall besides fort Phra Sumen. At Phan-Fa-Lilat crossroads and bridge, the boulevard turns left, northwards towards Dusit District.

The northern and outer section, Thanon Ratchadamnoen Nok, is with 1.500m the longest. It leads straight towards the Royal Plaza and the Throne Hall behind it. Along Ratchadamnoen Nok lies the United headquarters for Southeast Asia, the headquarters for the Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT), a large Muai-Thai stadium, the headquarters of the Thai army, more ministries and, in a sideroad, the house of government, seat of the Thai primeminister.

Ratchadamnoen Road is part of the many ideas of modern city design, which king Chulalongkorn brought back to Siam after his Europe journey in 1897, as well as the whole conception of Dusit Palace is, of what the boulevard is part of. It's influenced by some of the most representative capital roads of the west like the Champs-Elysees in Paris, The Mall in London and Unter den Linden in Berlin. The road is part of the first grand, planned new arrangement and expansion of Bangkok after 1782.

The boulevard had three parallel lanes on each side, separated by two rows of mahogany trees in the middle and more trees to spend shadow for the sidewalks. Vermymost of the trees fell victim to later modernisation efforts for the sake of the blasted automobiles who rule meanwhile any place on earth. The first automobile in Thailand may have been that of a prince which was brought to Siam in 1902. Within the next six years, the royal family acquired another 300 cars. In the first years of the road's existence, however, the king often pleased to cycle Ratchadamnoen along with parts of his entourage in the mild evenings.

'Ratchadamnoen Boulevard | Avenue' by Asienreisender

At the beginning stands the three-elephants monument (1), at the northeastern edge outside the Grand Palace. In the background is the pompous and gigantic ministry of defence to see (2). The golden elephant (1) is the seal of Bangkok's municipality; it depicts the street lanterns around the Grand Palace. Inmiddle between the Grand Palace and Dusit Palace stands the Democracy Monument (3). Around the Democracy Monument are a few very remarkable art-deco buildings from the late 1930s (6). Fort Mahakan (4) is a relic of the first, old city wall of the late 18th century. Approaching the Royal Plaza, palace propaganda is overwhelming; here it demonstrates the closeness of the palace to the Thai army. On the way are the UN Headquarters for Southeast Asia. The very end of the grand avenue is marked by Dusit Throne Hall at Royal Plaza (8); in the foreground the equestrian monument of king Chulalongkorn.

Images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2006, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2016

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Ratchadamnoen Road wittnessed much of the political turmoils of 20th century Siam/Thailand in 1973, 1976, 1992, 2006, 2010 and 2013.

The boulevard, which has in it's early years been used for big royal parades (Ratchadamnoen means royal procession), get's still every year heavily decorated with posters and royal propaganda of various kinds at the kings and queens birthday.


Thonburi, the place which marked the historical beginning of the megacity at the western banks of the Chao Phraya River, is no more that central, although still very crowded. Here are more house blocks situated, and furtherly to the west the city is still largely expanding, looking much shabbier than the city parts east of the river. The buildings are also far not as high west of the river.

Thonburi was the first capital of Siam after the downfall of Ayutthaya. Siam was called in that times also the kingdom of Thonburi. It's nowadays a part of Bangkok at the western banks of the Chao Phraya River, opposite to the Grand Palace. Until 1971, Thonburi was also the name of a province of Thailand, which included all the districts of Bangkok west of the river. Nowadays Thonburi district is much smaller, and excludes even Wat Arun and the former palace of king Taksin (what is now in Bangkok Yai district) as well as Thonburi Railway Station (which lies now in Bangkok Noi district). However, in a wider and historical sense these places are included here in the Thonburi chapter.

'Thonburi' by Asienreisender

A small glance into Thonburi at the right banks of Chao Phraya River. A traditional Thai temple near Bangkok Noi railway station (left), Mahidol University (middle) and a small sidewalk (soi) through the klongs (right). Images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 10/2006, 2016

Here, close to Bangkok Noi Railway Station, lies also Siriraj Hospital, Thailand's oldest and one of the most reputable hospitals in the country. The upper levels are reserved for the king of Thailand. The hospital cooperates with nearby Mahidol University. Interestingly, there is also a medical museum integrated.

Closeby here is also Thonburi's 'Royal Barges National Museum'.

Wat Arun - The Temple of Dawn

Another outstanding building in Bangkok is Wat Arun, the 'temple of dawn', at the western bank of the Chao Phraya River in Thonburi, opposite to the Grand Palace. It's a unique temple with a very tall and massive central prang (spire). Anyone who comes along on the river will quickly notice it. Particularly remarkable is that the buildings are coated with millions of china tiles and shells, which makes it clearly distinctive from all other temples in Bangkok.

Wat Arun

Wat Arun dates back centuries ago, at least to the 17th century, into the Ayutthaya period. After Ayutthaya's downfall in 1767, king Taksin founded the new Siamese capital in Thonburi, and his new palace on the ground of old Wichayen Fortress (now Wichaiprasit). Wat Arun got enclosed into the new palace area. The temple's name was changed then from the former name Wat Makok into Wat Chaeng.

When Siamese troops conquered Vientiane and gained the Emerald Buddha in 1779, it was first brought to Thonburi and placed into Wat Chaeng (which was renamed only later into Wat Arun. The Emerald Buddha was brought to Wat Phra Kaew, into the new Grand Palace compound, in 1785.

Wat Arun | The Temple of Dawn' by Asienreisender

In the early 19th century, in the reign of king Yodfa (Rama I, reign 1782 - 1809), crownprince and later king Rama II massively expanded the temple and particularly the main prang, which was merely 16m tall then, onto it's present height today, what is, according to different sources, either 66m, 67m, 80m or 86m.

The ordination hall (ubosot) was built in the reign of Rama II (king Phutthaloetla). The ubosot's Buddha statue (called Phra Phuttharup Narumit) was, as it is said, modelled by the king himself. In the statue's socked are his ashes preserved.

King Taksin's original palace, Phra Racha Wang Derm, lies south of Wat Arun. It is, together with the old fortress Wichayen, which has been renamed to Wichaiprasit Fortress, restored but closed for the public. It's at the time part of an area of the Thai Navy.

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Access to Wat Arun is best by using the river ferry, who stops at Wat Arun Pier. When I visited the sight in 2006, entrance was free. In later years a fee for foreigners was invented. It was also possible to climb up the stairway of the central prang to the uppermost, the third level. Since the climb is very steep, accidents happened and now it's restricted for visitors to the first level only.

Thonburi Railway Station

In Thonburi lies former Thonburi Railway Station, a small station at the beginning of the old route to Burma via the Three Pagoda Pass. This line was built in World War II under supervision of the Japanese army and became in a tragically way famous, for a great number of prisoners of war and Asian people, who were forced to built the 'death railway', lost their lives due to the hardships. The best known part of the line is the famous 'bridge over the River Kwai' in Kanchanabury.

Now the line is partially still in use until Kanchanabury and a few kilometers behind. For Thai People it's usually a normal mean of transport, for tourists, however, it's a tour to the stations of the death railway like Kanchanabury Bridge and Hellfire Pass. Foreigners pay therefore a multiple of the ticket price Thai's pay.

Bangkok Noi Station
Steam Engine Locomotive at Thonburi Railway Station, Bangkok, by Asienreisender

An old steam engine locomotive at little Thonburi Railway Station. At many of Thailand's railway stations are one, two or more of these old machines displayed. They usually look so good that one could imagine they are still able to operate. Image by Asienreisender, 2006


At the southeastern edge, along the Chao Phraya River, Rattanakosin borders to Bangkok's Chinatown. Chinatown is actually one of Bangkok's fifty districts which is officially called Samphanthawong. The busiest roads in this busy district are Yaowarat and Charoen-Krung Road.

Busy Chinatown
'Goods in Bangkok's Chinatown' by Asienreisender

Chily, red and green, as a merchandise in Chinatown. Chily, by the way, is not of Asian origin. It was brought by the first Europeans who came to Southeast Asia in modern times, the Portuguese. They brought the spice from South America. Image by Asienreisender, 12/2013

The Chinese community of Bangkok lived until 1782 on the grounds what became then Rattanakosin Island, when king Yodfa (Rama I) decided to establish Siam's new capital there. The Chinese, mostly merchants, were ordered to move eastwards. That makes Chinatown one of the oldest districts of Bangkok. It's also a tourist attraction for it's exoticities.

Chinatown is crammed with businesses of many kinds; Chinese restaurants with a great variety of specialities (many of them certainly offer weird ingredients from wild, often rare animals, who have to suffer terribly for the weired customers taste, many are driven into extinction for the high prices they reach in such restaurants. Also the widespread taste for swallow nests finds it's consumers here), traditional Chinese medicine (who are mostly not at all effective but for who many, many more animals get tortured and killed every day), household goods of all kinds, fruit, fish and meat, vegetables, tea and coffee, religious items and, last but not least, gold shops among much more.

There are also some special markets in Chinatown, like a flower market, electronic markets, antiquity markets, a market for agricultural tools and one for music instruments.

Among the many temples in Samphanthawong is Wat Traimit, which houses a grand Buddha statue which consists of 5.5 tons gold. In the past the gold was covered with gypsum, and it was only accidentally discovered in 1955 that it's of such an enormous monetary value.

Bangkok's Chinatown
Bangkok, Chinatown by Asienreisender

Bangkok's busy Chinatown. Image by Asienreisender, 12/2013

Bangkok Downtown

It's hard to say where actually Bangkok's center is. Apart from the historical center Rattanakosin Island, it's rather the wider area between Hua Lamphong Railway Station and Siam Square.

Hua Lamphong, Bangkok Railway Station

Hualamphong railway station is an impressing building, and the history of Thailand's railway makes an interesting story itself. Everywhere around are old steam engine locomotives displayed. The first line opened in 1893 between Bangkok and Pak Nam at the seaside, being 25km long. In 1924 the southern railway line reached then still sleepy Hat Yai and triggered it's boom.

Hua Lamphong Station

Bangkok Railway Station in downtown (Pathum Wan District) is the central hub for the Thai railway system. Any train to and from the south, the north or the northeast (Isan) is leaving or ending here. Only the western line to Kanchanabury is not connected with the main station and it's countrywide net. It's Bangkok station is in Thonburi.

Since there are more than 60,000 passengers going through the central station daily, it has with fourteen platforms a huge capacity. The reception hall, built in the years between 1910 and 1916 by the Italian architect Mario Tamagno in the style of Italian neorenaissance, is huge.

In the soon future, already in 2018, the central station will be moved, according to plannings, into a new location, Bang Sue Central Station. Bang Sue is under construction and will be the largest railway station in Southeast Asia and the sixth largest in the world, at least by the number of platforms. Hua Lamphong will be then, as planned, turned into a museum and tourist attraction.

'Hua Lamphong | Bangkok Railway Station' by Asienreisender

The photocomposition gives an impression of the reception hall from outside and inside and the platforms. The small image shows a restaurant car in a train which is just arriving from Hat Yai. At this day, strange enough, after a long night in the train, the staff was completely drunk and was continuously quarreling.

The first two black-and-white images are displayed in the reception hall. They show the railway station (supposedly) in the 1960s. The third one, bottom left, shows the station in World War II, with the air-raid shelter in front of it. I saw this photo in Dusit Zoo. Bangkok has been repeatedly bombed by American planes. However, fortunately they missed to hit the railway station as intended; therefore they destroyed a hotel close to it.

The last image bottom right shows a World War II armoured locomotive with a gun. It's placed on the huge area in the back of the reception hall.

All images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2010, 2012, 2016

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The Thai railway is planning massive expansions. The northeastern line via Nong Khai to Vientiane will be a four line highspeed connection which get's prolongued through north Laos to Kunming in Yunnan, China. A similar expansion is planned for the northern line, which ends now still in Chiang Mai. The plans to expand it to Chiang Rai are already years old. Moreover, it's planned to connect it also via Chiang Khong through Laos (crossing the new Mekong Bridge at Chiang Khong) with Yunnan. These two lines will be then a connection altogether between Beijing and Singapore.

Lumphini Park

Inmiddle of Bangkok's center, Lumphini Park is a large green lung, a refuge from the hectic and traffic of the city. The name reminds to the birthplace of Buddha in Nepal. Other spellings are Lumpini or Lumpinee. The Thais call the park Suan Lumphini, short Suan Lum.

Lumphini Park
'Lumphini Park' by Asienreisender

A green oasis inmiddle of the megacity. Image by Asienreisender, 2010

Dominating in the park are above all the bigger lakes. They create already a nice microclimate, cooling down the tropical heat a bit. About 2.5km plastered trails lead through the park in total, on which common motorized vehicles are prohibited. No blasted cars in the park. There is plenty of short cut lawn and a couple of buildings and trees. The park is surrounded by a wall with heavy, metal gates; it's open from the early mornings to the late evenings. The whole park area comprises of 576,000km2.

Photocomposition Lumphini Park

A lot of animals are permanent residents of Lumphini Park. The most spectacular to name is a not small number of stately monitor lizards, who one wouldn't expect inmiddle of a megacity. They lost their shyness widely and walk most relaxed over the lawns and trails, to slide into one of the lakes and having a swim. Although harmless in the way that they don't attack humans, it's advisable not to come too close to them. But, great photos are possible, because they don't run away from a photographer.

The lakes are home to many fish, the trees house squirrels and a lot of birds. Interestingly, many migratory birds have a stopover here in September/October or April/May, on their way from Siberia into the tropes towards places like Tonle Songkhla or on their way back. They mix with a number of escaped cage birds of a great variety. Dogs are, another benefit of Lumphini Park, not allowed here.

'Lumphini Park | Bangkok' by Asienreisender

Lumphini is, of course, a great place for the Bangkokian middle class to have exercises in the mornings and evenings. Unfortunately, in the evenings there is the typical, daily aerobic event wich comes with too loud a music din. Apart from that, many others do their jogging, Tai Chi, meditation or gymnastics here. The park is equipped with many training facilities. Boats are for rent to go around on the lakes, who are connected to each other by canals.

Sometimes there are concerts given in the park by the Bangkok Symphony Orchestra.

The park's history goes back to the years after the First World War. At the very beginning here was an exhibition for Thai crafts and various flowers and other plants. In that times the spot was still quite outside of Bangkok town. In the Second World War, the site served as a camp for the Japanese Army. At the southwestern entrance of the park has been a big statue of king Vajiravudh (Rama VI) placed (allegedly in 1942, a time in which no king lived in Thailand). The king was the initiator for the park and the site was founded on royal property.

Bordering directly to the skyscrapers of Bangkok's donwtown, the park is an oasis. However, surveillance happens here as well; we see the notorious cameras who are implemented in masses in contemporary Bangkok. In contrast to the modern implementation and surrounding stands the old clocktower, who gives a vivid Big Ben sound every full hour. Also the Vajiravudh memorial is clearly a historical reminiscence.

All images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2010, 2013, 2016

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Lumphini Park may have been the model for the establishment of many such parks all over in Thailand's cities and towns. It's always a highlight in any Thai place to visit the local park and having a rest from the din, stress and pollution of the modern cities.

Siam Square

Phanthip Plaza
Phanthip Plaza by Asienreisender

Inside Phanthip Plaza, the country's biggest shopping mall for computers and computer equipment. Image by Asienreisender, 12/2013

Siam Square and Rattanakosin Island are two central, but complementary parts of Bangkok. While Rattanakosin is the historical and cultural center of the city, Siam Square is the modern, commercial center. The history of this city part goes not further back than to the mid 1960s, when Chulalongkorn University started to rent or sell real estate to gain an income from it. A boom started in the 1970s and continued over the next decades. Siam Square grew up and is now symbolizing that Thailand is a newly industrialized country with all the 'postmodern' madness what is coming with that.

Siam Square is not a square in the actual meaning; it's a city part with many streets, many of them smaller sideroads (sois) around broad Rama I Road. Here concentrate the luxurious shopping malls for the wealthier, mostly Thais, but also western expatriots and shoppers from neighbouring countries. Huge shopping malls like Siam Center, Siam Discovery and Siam Paragon are here, together with many restaurants, cafes, hotels, cinemas, banks, schools and more. Further east are many embassies.

Apart from all the blasted business, there are some interesting points at Siam Square. There is a Madame Tussaud's branch with a certain focus on Thai royalty, together with some more museums like Jim Thompson's House, Bangkok Art and Culture Centre and Siam Ocean World, the largest aquarium in Southeast Asia. Besides, Erawan Shrine is also situated in Siam Square.

In the 2010 demonstrations thousands of 'redshirt' protesters occupied the area for weeks and blocked the holy business.

As a commercial center, traffic is particularly choking here. There are two skytrain lines going through the area, and many buses from other parts of Bangkok are stopping here.

Central World
'Siam Square' by Asienreisender

Central World in August 2010, after the fire. The 'yellow' government blamed the demonstrators for setting the fire, but there are other voices... Traffic is devastating.

Images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2010, 2016

For more shopping, Patpong district along Silom Road houses also a number of modern shopping centers, while Chinatown is a place where mostly typical Asian goods, usually foods, spices, clothes and much, much more is dealt with.

'Erawan Shrine' by Asienreisender

The Thai myths about the peculiarity of white elephants comes from Erawan, who is empowered to make rain, what is very essential for a rice-growing civilization. White elephants were therefore always the claimed property of the king, who was propagated as the master of the rain, a highly prestigious role. Image by Asienreisender, 2015

Erawan Shrine

The for Bangkokians very famous Erawan Shrine is a brahma/hindu shrine in central Bangkok on the ground of the Grand Hyatt Erawan Hotel. It is a place of worship for many Thai People who pray for money, business success, love, health, enlightenment or other purposes. For bigger wishes the prayers can hire a dancing ensemble which performs traditional Thai dances together with an orchestra, to please Brahma. Most worshipers come in the mornings or the evenings between seven and eight o'clock. Usual offerings are flower garlands, candles, incence sticks, fruits and other items. There are dozends of shops around who sell items for sacrifice.

Erawan is actually a thirtythree-headed elephant who plays a role in the Indian Ramayana Epos as the vehicle of the hindu god Indra. Erawan is in the legend described as big as a mountain; he is also depicted in the Ramakien version of the Ramayana at the outer walls of Wat Phra Kaeo. Usually, Erawan appears in the arts merely with three heads and sometimes, as we see him here, with merely one. The name Erawan Shrine is insofar irritating, as the shrine is not dedicated to Erawan but to Brahma. The shrine's name derives merely from the Erawan Hotel behind. In Thai language the shrine's name is 'San Phra Phrom', what means 'Brahma Shrine'. I guess, that the Erawan statue we see here has been added later to the shrine's ensemble.

Photocomposition Erawan Shrine

Particularly interesting is the history of Erawan Shrine. When the Erawan Hotel, a government owned building, was under construction in the mid 1950s, a number of accidents happened. Workers died at the building site and a ship, which brought marble from Italy for the construction, sank on open sea. Workers refused to continue and Luang Suwicharnpat, an astrologer, was asked for advice. He diagnosed the reason for the misadventures in having done the foundation stone laying at a bad day, and suggested the implementation of a shrine for Brahma together with a spirit house.

After the construction and application of the shrine, what was done by the Fine Arts Department in 1956, the trouble, as it is said, ceased. The Erawan Hotel was demolished in 1991 and replaced by the Grand Hyatt Erawan Hotel.

'Erawan Shrine' by Asienreisender

There were two attacks on the shrine until now. The first happened in March 2006. An apparently mentally disturbed man demolished the shrine with a hammer inmiddle of the night. Two street sweepers, who witnessed the incident, went there and beat the man to death. It became a rather bizarre state affair for then primeminister Thaksin Shinawatra, who personally cared for the shrine's restoration and reimplantation, which was done in a pompous and ceremonial manner.

A much worse attack happened on August 17th, 2015, when a powerful bomb exploded at 7 p.m. and killed 25 people, hurting 125 more. In the aftermath of the attack the Thai police arrested two men who were sued for the crime. Both of them claimed being innocent. They are of Chinese nationality and Uyghur ethnicity. The supposed reason for the attack was the delivery of a group of Uyghurs some months ago, who were in Thailand on the way to Turkey for applying assylum, to China in the time before the attack.

It looked to me as if the Erawan/Ganesha in the neighbouring shrine is nowadays a more revered idol than the original Brahma. Since Ganesha is the god of wealth and success, he represents much more the aspiration of modern man. Someone, together with his family, even added the stone tablet to the shrine in which some instructions are inscribed.

All images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2006, 2015, 2016

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Silom Road | Patpong

Between Lumphini Park and Chao Phraya River runs one of the most famous roads of Thailand. Silom Road has it's reputation not only from all the funny warehouses and shopping malls, the markets with their crazy offers, the good restaurants, discotheques, life-music and the better hotels here, but moreover because of the notorious nighlife around. Patpong is the country's most famous redlight district, the center of gogo-bars and all kinds of sex business. Stephen Leather's 'Private Dancer' happens partially in Patpong. Patpong, however, covers a few sideroads (sois) between Silom Road and Surawong Road. The sex industries here are specialized mainly on Westerners, while other redlight quarters are specialized on Thais.

Thanon Silom

'Silom Road' by Asienreisender

Silom in Thai means 'windmill'. In earlier times there were simple bamboo windmills pumping water out of the former canal (klong) to water vegetable fields. The road has been built in 1851 and was part of a dyke and irrigation system. Nowadays the road is a financial center with banks, insurances and the headquarters of big companies. Sometimes Silom Road is referred to as Thailand's Wall Street.

A remarkable exotic place along the road is the colourful hindu Mariamman Temple here. (See also the Mariamman Temple in Georgetown [scroll down to point 9], Penang).

Images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2013, 2016

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Patpong owes it's name to a family of Chinese immigrants (from Hainan Island) who bought the area in 1946 in the then outskirts of Bangkok.

Mariamman Temple
'Mariamman Temple Bangkok' by Asienreisender

The roofs of the exotic temple of the hindu community in Bangkok. Image by Asienreisender, 12/2013

It started with normal shophouses built in teak, before the first nightclubs were invented. Stewards of international airlines were the first customers here, until the quarter became a rest and recuperation place for US soldiers in the Vietnam War. From the early 1990s on there was an additional night market opened, which attracted more and more mass tourists who went there for shopping. It's a funny thing that all the daily sex shows and prostitution are illegal in Thailand.

There are two other redlight districts for Westerners in Bangkok. One is Soi Cowboy (named after T.G. 'Cowboy' Edwards an American Airforce pilot, who opened the first gogo bar here). Along the about 200m long road are several gogo bars. Another one is Nana [Entertainment] Plaza in soi 4 of Sukhumvit Road. It is a square-shaped plaza with three-storey buildings around. In the 1980s opened the first gogo bars, who dominate the scene here now.

Jim Thompson House

James H.W. Thompson 1906 - 1967(?) was an American businessman, art designer and architect who became famous for developing the Thai Silk industries after the Second World War. Thompson is seen as one of the most famous Westerners in Southeast Asia.

Thai Silk
'Thai Silk' by Asienreisender

Thai Silk in the shop of Rashnee Silk Village, Hua Hin. Image by Asienreisender, 10/2006

The Jim Thompson House is now one of the sights in Bangkok. It lies at the end of a small lane. One is passing the house by when driving on the klong ferry on Maha Nak Canal between Fort Mahakan and Siam Square. It consists of an ensemble of five traditional wooden Thai houses, of who some where brought from Ayutthaya and rebuilt at the spot here. They lie inmiddle of a green garden and are a museum now. In Jim Thompson House is a collection of Thai Silk and many items of Thai art to see. Also pieces from neighbouring Burma, Laos and Cambodia, who where brought by Thompson on his journeys through Southeast Asia, are gathered here.

Thompson's private Thai Silk collection served as a model for the traditional Thai dressings in the famous stage musical 'The King and I' (Rodgers and Hammerstein), which was made a Hollywood movie later with Yul Brunner as king Mongkut (Rama IV). The film is under political censorship in Thailand. However, the play was the cause for Thompsons silk compnanies fame and business success.

Jim Thompson's disappearance remains a strange mystery. After he went on a short stroll on eastersunday 1967 after lunch in the Cameron Highlands (Malaysia), he was never seen again. A great search effort had been done, but not the faintest trace has ever been found again of Thompson.

Dusit District

King Chulalongkorn
'King Chulalongkorn, Rama V, Equestrian Memorial at Royal Plaza' by Asienreisender

The equestrian memorial of king Chulalongkorn on the Royal Plaza in Dusit District. Chulalongkorn's inspirations, when and after visiting the imperial capitals of central and west Europe in 1897, were the cause for the grand landscape architecture of what is called Dusit Palace, a large ensemble of royal buildings, surrounded by huge gardens, canals and lakes. Image by Asienreisender, 8/2015

North of Rattanakosin Island, connected by Ratchadamnoen Road (Klang and Nok, the royal highway), lies Dusit District. In the district lie most of the major administration centers of Thailand, the House of Parliament, the seat of the government and others. The National Library and several royal universities are placed here. Originally, Dusit was exclusively a royal domain, built up under the order of king Chulalongkorn (Rama V), who had plans for a new palace ensemble after his journey to Europe in 1897.

Wimanmek Palace, the largest teak wood building worldwide, was Chulalongkorn's residence for a few years until 1908. Chitralada Palace, the current residence of the king of Thailand, was built in 1925. Anantasamakhom Throne Hall and Wat Benchamabophit, the royal temple, are two more examples of a number of more buildings in the district. At Wasukri Pier is the storage for the royal barges. All the palace buildings here are summarized as Dusit Palace.

Later, parts of the royal estates got other functions. Dusit Zoo is in a central position as a former botanical garden.

As the still surrounding of the royal palace and many royal estates, the district is distinglished clean, green, large and representative.

The Throne Hall

The most representative, pompous building in Dusit Palace ensemble is Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall. Ordered by king Chulalongkorn in 1908, he didn't see it's completion in 1915, five years after his death. It was meaned as a new reception and audience hall, replacing the old one in the Grand Palace. The main architect was Mario Tamagno (together with Annibale Rigotti and others), who also built Hua Lamphong Railway Station. The architectonical style is neorenaissance and neoclassic, what was fashionable at the time in Europe. The famous Carrara marble was brought from Italy, together with other expensive, foreign materials.

The outer walls are made from Carrara marble. Particularly salient is the central dome of the building. The building is surrounded by a huge, green garden, consisting mostly of lawn and surrounded by an artful high fence. South of the hall borders the huge Royal Plaza with the big equestrian statue of king Chulalongkorn.

The interior is coined by large wallpaintings, glorifying the first six kings of the Chakri dynasty.

Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall
'Dusit Throne Hall' by Asienreisender

Images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2010, 2012, 2015, 2016

During the 'Siamese Revolution' of 1932, the Throne Hall served as the headquarters for the People's Party. It was used then as the National Assembly until 1970, when the new House of Parliament was opened. The opening ceremonies of new national assemblies happens still here. Above that, the Throne Hall is nowadays a museum. However, it's not allowed to make photos inside; cameras and cellphones are collected and locked.

Thailand's National Assembly

The first establishment of a National Assembly in Thailand happened due to the so called Siamese Revolution of 1932 (what was rather the first of many military coup d'etats who would follow). It was designed as a one chamber system of a house of representatives. Composition and rules of the national assembly are based on the constitution.

Both, the assembly and the constitution have a long history of frequent alterations since their first creations in 1932. As the location of the National Assembly between 1932 and 1974 served Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall, then it moved to the new, larger building opposite Dusit Zoo, directly north of Throne Hall. Since 2008 there are plans to build another new and bigger House of Parliament, but no action has been taken since.

The National Assembly
'Thailand's National Assembly | House of Parliament | Senate' by Asienreisender

Both chambers, the House of Parliament and the Senate take their meetings in this building. Images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2015, 2016

Thailand's last National Assembly has been dissolved in late 2013 by primeminister Yingluck for planned new elections. These elections in February 2014 failed by efforts of the then ('yellow') opposition. The May 22nd 2014 military coup d'etat led to the government of the current military junta under now (unelected) primeminister general Prayuth Chan-o-cha. The junta abolished the latest, 2007 constitution of Thailand. There is now an interim constitution in act. Since then elections are promised, by repeatedly delayed; first to October 2014, then to early 2015, to late 2015, 2016, and now maybe to Saint-Never Day. Thailand is ruled at the time by a self-imposed 'Council for Pease and Order' under the executive of the army. A referendum for a new constitution is planned for August 2016. The House of Representatives has been replaced by a National Legislative Assembly, selected by the National Council for Peace and Order respectively the military; it has between 220 and 250 members.

After the last constitution of 2007, the National Assembly was designed as a two chamber system of a lower house, the house of representatives, and an upper house, the senat. The house of Representatives comprised of 500 parliamentarians, of who were only 375 elected by the people and 125 were elected by the political parties in the house by their proportional representation. Elections were foreseen for every four years. The last election happened on July 3rd, 2011. The senat comprised of 150 members, of who were 76 elected and 74 appointed by the king. A senate's term was limited with six years. The primeminister was elected not by the people directly, but by the National Assembly.

The 2007 constitution granted universal suffrage; participation in the elections was for all Thai citizens, apart from certain groups of exceptions who were by law excluded from voting, mandatory.

The first session of a newly elected National Assembly had to take place within 30 days after the elections. It happened in the Throne Hall and was opened by a speech of the king or an appointed representative of the monarch. The king had some other rights and duties in the National Assembly, including some veto rights.

Wat Benchamabophit

One of Bangkok's sights, where the tuktuk drivers want to bring the tourists, is the marble temple of Wat Benchamabophit. It's the palace temple of the Dusit Palace ensemble of king Chulalongkorn, who ordered the construction of most of the main buildings in Dusit. The temple's full name, Wat Benchamabophit Dusitwanaram Ratchaworawihan, in English the 'temple of the fifth king', relates to Chulalongkorn, who was the fifth king of the Chakri dynasty.

The Marble Temple
'Wat Benchamabophit' by Asienreisender

The ordination hall (ubosot) in three variations. The photo bottom left was shot still in film, a rarity nowadays. The 52 Buddha statues have small plates with explanations of their background. Images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 1995, 2006, 2016

The construction dates back to the year 1899. Architect was the king's half brother Narit, who got support by the Italian architect Mario Tamagno, who we know already from the construction of Hua Lamphong Railway Station and the Throne Hall. Chulalongkorn died before completion of the building, but his ashes are preserved in the ordination hall (ubosot) of Wat Benchamabophit.

The temple compound consists of a number of different buildings and artworks. The temple ground includes a nice and large garden. However, the main building is the ubosot, the ordination hall. The building is made in Carrara marble from Italy, where the name 'marble temple' comes from.

The ubosot's collonade surrounds a court which ground is laid in marble plates. There are fifty two Buddha statues placed along the walls of the collonade. They are a precious collection of the finest pieces from different regions of Thailand and partially other buddhist countries. Insofar are the Buddha statues here representative for different styles and eras of religious art. They all show different expressions (mudras). Not all of them are originals. A precondition for the collection was that all the statues had to be of the same size; those who were fitting into the required pattern for the temple but were too small or too big, got remade by a Thai craftsman.

The main statue is Phra Phutthachinnarat. It's a copy of the Buddha statue of the same name in Wat Mahathat in Phitsanulok. It's made of 2.5 tons of bronze. Here, under Phra Phutthachinnarat, are Chulalongkorn's ashes buried.

Wat Benchamabophit was nominated as UNESCO World Heritage in 2005. It's nowadays one of the main tourist attractions of Bangkok and certainly one of the most beautiful temples in the city.

Vimanmek Palace

Part of Dusit Palace is Vimanmek Mansion or Palace, a large teakwood building which was built 1893 originally in Chonburi, east Thailand. In 1900 it was dismantled and reconstructed in Dusit District. King Chulalongkorn lived in the fourth floor of the building until 1906, for he found the Grand Palace no more suitable. In later years the palace served as the home for queen Indrasakdi Sachi, the wife of king Rajivarudh (Rama VI). The palace building lies in a large, green garden which is surrounded at all four sides by canals (klongs).

Vimanmek Mansion

'Vimanmek Palace | Vimanmek Mansion' by Asienreisender

Besides the main palace building there are some side buildings. Part of the ensemble is also the collection of VW vans - outdated, but in excellent shape, though.

Images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2010, 2016

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Vimanmek Mansion has 81 rooms and is seen as the largest teakwood building in the world. Most of the building has three storeys, only the central part has four. The building has two wings, both 30m long and 20m high. It was abandoned in 1935 and declined over the decades, until it became restored in the early 1980s, due to the 200 years anniversary of Rattanakosin Bangkok. Nowadays, the former palace is one of Bangkok's tourist attractions and houses a museum. It shows the atmosphere of the time and lifestyle of king Chulalongkorn. The former audience room, bedroom and bathroom of the king are to see here; it's said here was the first shower in Thailand implemented. Besides there are crafts, silver works, ceramics and more equipment of the early 20th century to see. Many items who Chulalongkorn brought from his trip to Europe are collected here.

Chitralada Palace

Chitralada Royal Villa or Palace is the inofficial residence of king Bhumibol (Rama IX) and queen Sirikit of Thailand. The palace buildings are not open for the public and surrounded by a wide water trench. King Bhumibol decided to move the residence to here after the death of his elder brother, king Mahidol (Rama VIII), in the Grand Palace in 1946.

The royal villa was built by king Vajiravudh in 1913 and incorporated into Dusit Palace Compound in 1925.

In the large area around the villa are some representative buildings placed. More interestingly are the experimental agricultural fields, a rice mill, a fishfarm and a candle factory. A greenhouse collects a variety of Thailands endangered plants. These installations enjoy some fame in Thailand.

Chitralada Royal Villa
'Chitralada Palace | Chitralada Royal Villa' by Asienreisender

The entrance to the royal palace at Rama V Road and the corner of Chitralada block at Si Ayutthaya Road. Images and composition by Asienreisender, 2015, 2016

Dusit Zoo

'A Squirrel Wallpainting at Dusit Zoo' by Asienreisender

It's worth to have a closer look at all the many wallpaintings on Dusit Zoo's outer walls. They show a great number of different animals, many but not all of them among the Animals of Southeast Asia.

Squirrels belong to the very few animal survivors in the megacity; they manage to live in the green islands of Bangkok. Image by Asienreisender, 8/2015

Thailand's largest and oldest zoopark started as a botanical garden of king Chulalongkorn (Rama V), which was situated between Chittralada Palace and Vimanmek Palace and Anantasamakhom Throne Hall. Nowadays, neighbouring the zoo to the west, lies Thailand's House of Parliament. The establishment of a zoo there goes back to an initiative of primeminister and field marshall Plaek Phibunsongkram in 1938.

About a quarter of the 20 hectar large area is covered by lakes. It's great to stroll around in the green and discover the great variety of animals living here. A tourist train carries visitors in a circle around through the zoopark's stations. At the lake, pedalos can be rent for sailing on the water. A playground for kids exists and a small museum of the Thai Air Force, where some items of Bangkok's history in the Second World War are exhibited. An old air raid shelter is to see here as well. At certain times are also animal shows presented; I saw one with a trained seal. However, I am sceptical about such shows and how the animals are treated for...

Photocomposition 'Animals of Dusit Zoo'

Many of the animals are original inhabitants of Southeast Asia, others come from other parts of Asia, Africa, Australia and America. Alltogether it's said that there are here 300 kinds of mamals, 1,000 bird species and a huge number of reptiles to see. One part of the zoo houses a great number of Thailand's snakes and crocodiles.

The complex includes an animal hospital, a zoo museum and an educational center. Of course one get's also food here in a zoo restaurant respectively 'food center'.

Long parts of the zoo's outer wall who face to the west and north are painted with a great number of animal pictures. Some of the pictures have been drawn by pupils. They all give a good impression and it's fun just to walk along the whole wall and have a look at any of the pieces of this nice exhibition.

'Dusit Zoo' by Asienreisender

Among the animals of Dusit Zoo are not few old acquaintances. The dusky leaf monkey for example, the Asian elephant and the crocodile. The fish owl I saw repeatedly in Laos, particularly on Si Phan Don (4000 Islands); the moorhen is a frequent inhabitant of Tonle Songkhla at Phattalung and Songkhla.

Very curious for me was the two-headed turtle which I saw in an aquarium.

Most of the paintings are from the zoo's outer walls, except the 'guide' to the nocturnal house and the two lizards below; they are painted on the tourist train, together with more excellent paintings.

The uppermost image shows part of the lake scenery in the zoo area; in the background lies Anantasamakhom Throne Hall.

All images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2012, 2015, 2016

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The Slums of Bangkok

A Backyard Scene
Outdoor Kitchen in Bangkok by Asienreisender

The other side of Bangkok's mica: an outdoor kitchen in a backalley in the Khao San area. Image by Asienreisender, 12/2013

The highest concentration of Bangkoks 800 slums is in the south, near the city's port. Verymost of the foreign visitors of the city never get a glance on them.

However, it's actually not really worth to come to Bangkok for doing much sightseeing, except one is interested in culture, history or it's peculiar nightlife. Patpong district, particularly the sideroads near Silom Road, change at sunset into one of the world's most notorious redlight districts.

Bangkok is the central hub for tourists and travellers into whole Southeast Asia, because it's hosting the biggest airport in the world region and most flights from America, Europe, Japan and Australia and more and more other Asian countries arrive in Bangkok. From here on tourism finds it's way to other places in Thailand and the neighbouring countries of Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, Burma/Myanmar, Vietnam or even Indonesia.



Bangkok's transport system is not the worst. There are three classes of buses to almost anywhere. The 'upper class' has air conditioner and the vehicles are as modern as in western cities, the 'second class' has fans inside and the most frequently running buses are old monsters, run down, noisy, blasting out black clouds of smog, but they are at least cheap (free for Thai People) and commute frequently. The destinations are given in Thai language, so most foreigners have to ask other passengers which bus to take to go wherever. But that always works, for Thai People are generally very open minded, friendly and glad to help foreigners. The bus drivers or conductors are also mostly willing to help.

Bangkok's Canal Ferries
'Bangkok's Klong Ferries' by Asienreisender

Most, but not all of Bangkok's canals have ferry services. Images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2012, 2013, 2016

There is a ferry system as well. It's anyway worth to use the passenger ferries on the Chao Praya River to come around in Bangkok and getting a view of the city from the big river. Another ferry transport is on Klong San Sap, running between the Golden Mount via downtown (Jim Thompson's House, Siam Square) further on many kilometers through the city. It's cheap and quick and one get's to see Bangkok from another perspective. Passing by some ugly slums in Bangkok's center, for example.

Additionally there are the skytrains, two lines over 31km distance with 30 stations. They transport 600,000 rides every day. The BTS (Bangkok Mass Transit System) skytrains run since December 1999.

Since 2004 there is even a subway, MRT (Metropolitan Rapid Transit), in Bangkok. It's running over 27km with 18 stations (blue line). It's extension and two more lines are under construction, and some further lines are in planning. Now it serves already 240,000 rides a day.

Since December 2009 there is also another skytrain running from the inner city to the international airport (Suvarnabhumi Airport Rail Link).

Bangkok's Buses
Traffic and Busses in Bangkok by Asienreisender

One of the many old busses in Bangkok, who go almost everywhere in short frequences. These cucumbers are from the 1980s, blast out a lot of smog and don't have aircon. Therefore the windows are still openable, what is not the case with the newer buses. Image by Asienreisender, 12/2013

Of course there are everywhere taxis as well and these notorious tuk-tuk's, motorbike rikshaws, of who are plenty, particularly around Khao San district and other touristic places. The drivers are always addressing tourists on the streets: 'Hello sir, where are you going?'. They seem to be the cheapest possibility to go around individually, but the drivers are unreliable and often try to get tourists into certain jewellery or Indian tailor shops where they get a commission from the owners for bringing potential customers. That's time consuming and annoying, because the shop assistants try hard to make one buying anything. Although there is of course no obligation to buy stuff there, pressure is set on one and it seems many tourists buy what, doesn't matter they need it or not.

Bangkok is also the center of Thailand's traffic system in general. When coming from the south and heading to the center, the north or northeast of the country, it's practically impossible to bypass Bangkok. The big highways concentrate on Bangkok, and the railway system does as well.

Suvarnabhumi Airport

The official opening of Bangkok's new international airport Suvarnabhumi happened on September 28th, 2006. I was personally on board of one of the very first arrivals there. Apart from a waiting time of not more than an hour for the baggage, the service started quite well. Other passengers may have had a bit worse experiences, but to me it seemed quite an outstanding performance, because the logistical operation of a move from one very big airport to another within a day is a grand challenge.

The former international and now domestic airport Don Mueang is since then serving as a domestic airport and an alternative airport for international flights in case of overcapacity or other difficulties on Suvarnabhumi.

Suvarnabhumi lies some 30km outside of Bangkok, east of the city's center. With far above 50 million annual passengers arriving and departing it's one of the largest airports in Asia and the world (rank 17 worldwide in passengers, rank 20 in goods, 52.9 million passengers in 2015). 800 planes start and land here every day (mid 2015). It also ranks among the best airports in the world (rank 10 by Skytrax).

Bangkok International Airport
'Suvarnabhumi Airport' by Asienreisender

An attractive point is the usage of translucent materials for the airport buildings, which means a maximum of daylight use.

The airport is already under expansion, to meet a capacity of 65 million passengers per year in 2017/18. Another, planned expansion targets the goal of an annual 125 million passengers for the year 2024. The latter expansion includes an additional runway, a third, additional to the two in operation at the time.

Among the ten busiest routes to and fro Suvarnabhumi Airport were in 2014 exclusively other Asian airports, not a single western one.

The name Suvarnabhumi means 'golden land' and relates to an ancient legendary country on the Southeast Asian peninsula. It's, by the way, also the name of a town in Thailand's northeast.

However, there occured quality problems already a year after opening. The airport is built on a swampy ground, merely 2m above sea level. For the mass traffic with the heavy airplains the fundament of the runways prooved too weak and showed cracks. A number of other serious failures and complaints happened and reparations had to be done.

Many different connections, mostly bus lines, link Suvarnabhumi Airport to Bangkok center like Silom Road, Khao San Road, Hua Lamphong Railway Station and Sukhumvit Road, others directly to other provinces like the popular tourist destination Pattaya. A great deal of taxis provides more transport opportunities; there is also a rail connection which leads from the airport to Makkasan Station and vice versa. Another free bus line is connectiong Suvarnabhumi with Don Mueang Airport.

Peculiarly, the airport has a 23.5km long bicycle lane, leading around it's perimeter. It's called Sky Lane and on it are no other vehicles allowed, so that cyclists can be sure about being undisturbed and not endangered on the one-direction track. There are even restrooms and street lanterns along the lane. Usage is for free.

Suvarnabhumi Airport made headlines in the international news late November 2008, when demonstrators of the 'Peoples Alliance for Democracy', the so called 'yellow shirts', occupied the airport and blocked all traffic for a couple of days.

Images and photocomposition by Asienreisender, 2012, 2016

Chao Phraya River

Bangkok's grand river is, apart from the Mekong River, Thailands biggest. The Mekong, however, never enters Thailand completely but is only, over many hundreds of kilometers, the border river to Laos.

Chao Phraya River
Rama VIII Bridge

Rama VIII bridge over the Chao Phraya River. This large river, which crosses the central Thai plains, is about 400m wide here. On the broad river also run several frequent ferry services, leading quick and easy over great distances through the city. Besides, on the water is always a fresh breeze. Image by Asienreisender, 5/2012

The Chao Phraya starts some 370km riverupwards from Bangkok at the confluence of the Ping River and the Nan River at Nakhon Sawan. It's flowing then through Thailand's central plains into the Gulf of Thailand, where it marks also the northeastern seam of the Malay Peninsula. Along the Chao Phraya lies also the former Siamese capital Ayutthaya.

Chao Phraya, also called the 'river of kings', is actually a title for high nobility in Thai language. The name already indicates, that it is the main river of the country.

However, the course of the big river has been several times altered in the last 500 years. To gain a shorter access from the capital Ayutthaya to the Gulf of Thailand, Siamese engineers cut the river with a great workforce by more than 62km. The alteration of the river caused several problems like floods and salt water intrusion, which reached much further north then ever before. The great flood of 2011 may have to do, among other reasons like massive deforestation, with the shortcutting.

Since the Chao Phraya is the country's largest and central waterway, it's surroundings were object of massive urbanization and industrialization. The originally rich ecology has been widely destroyed by this process. The large marshlands have been transformed first into rice paddies with a sophisticated irrigation system for wet rice cultivation, before the industrialization in the second half of the 20th century covered most of it with concrete and asphalt. The smaller Khao Sam Roy Yot National Park may give a faint impression of the former state of the landscapes. The coastline was overgrown with salty mangrove forests.

Habitat destruction is caused also by the notorious dams, irrigation drainage and many kinds of different pollution like the use of pesticides.

Nowadays, the river is Bangkok's most important waterway. A lot of ships, many huge freighters and fifteen ferry services are running up and down the river. There are seven major bridges crossing the Chao Phraya in Bangkok. The most bombastic is Mega Bridge.


Bangkok by walking

Super Police

Police protection is generally good in Thailand, and they really try to help tourists. Though, in Khao San Road and around they also raid people without being suspicious for drugs. In case they find anything, the policemen want to be bribed to let their victim go... Image by Asienreisender, 2012

The best choice when one wants to see most of a place is to walk around. But, that's really tough in these megacities like Bangkok. It's a real strain, for all the crowd and heavy traffic one has every second to deal with. One is forced to spend more attention to the traffic than to sights or topics of interest of whatever kind, because traffic is simply a letal threat. The driving style here is more aggressive than in the countryside, although it's still modest compared to other countries. Thais drive normally slowly and give a pedestrian a chance to cross the roads. This mentality is in the dense urban traffic here still alive, but not that much as elswere in Thailand. Vehicles of all kind, in many cases big buses, block sight to points of interest or for orientation.

Generally it's obvious that this traffic system with private cars for everybody is generally not a sufficient and sustainable way of organizing traffic. That's so for many reasons (like oil shortages and wars for oil, tanker desasters with loosing huge amounts of oil in the sea etc.), but most obviously it's an enormous threat of health for the people, due to pollution, accident dangers and all the huge amount of space (wide roads, parkings) cars need. Car traffic destroys cities and countrysides. An abolishment of cars is urgently needed, and cars must be replaced by well organized public transport. But, there is no thought about that among politicians - it's too obviously that all this harm to people and the environment has to be, for the benefit of big industries and the whole fetish economy.

See also: Traffic in Thailand

Though, a good thing about Bangkok is that it is still a widely safe place concerning criminality, as Thailand is in general. When being normally careful one is really safe here.

Bangkok's Klongs
Khlong Bang Lamphu by Asienreisender

Klong Bang Lamphu, the border canal of Rattanakosin Island, offers a usable sidewalk (left side) between the Chao Phraya River and the Golden Mount. At the Golden Mount it's connected into Klong San Sap, where a ferry service is running to downtown. Image by Asienreisender, 12/2013

Asienreisender Up to the top!

Published on May 12th, 2012


Last update on May 20th, 2017